Site Nomination for Peat Site Profiles in Southeast Asia
Protected Area
Name of Site: Maludam National park
Country: Malaysia
GPS Point: Latitude: °24’ N - 1°40’ N Longitude: 111°0’ E - 111°16’ E
Location & Access: Maludam National Park is located in the Sri Aman Division of Sarawak, in East Malaysia on the island of Borneo. It is located in the Maludam Peninsula.
Total Area: 43147.00 hectare(s)
Background of Site: Peat swamp forests cover about 10% of the land area of Sarawak. Maludam Peninsula is a low-lying, flat peat swamp and the largest single patch of peat swamp forest in Sarawak and Brunei but has mostly been exploited for timber and plantation agriculture.

Maludam National Park is the largest Totally Protected Peat Swamp Forest in Sarawak gazetted in May 2000. It comprised the largest single peat dome in Northern Borneo. The peat dome is critical to the hydrological regime of the entire area, in ensuring local supply of water, and in buffering farms and settlements from flood, drought and saline water intrusion.

The Maludam National Park carries the red banded langur (Presbytis melalophos cruciger) and a viable population of proboscis monkey (Nasalis larvatus), one of only about five potentially viable populations in Sarawak. There is also a significant population of silvered langurs (Presbytis cristata). Diversity of other mammals is low but there are numerous birds in the Park, including black, pied and rhinoceros hornbills, blue-eared and stork-billed kingfishers, green imperial pigeons, slender-billed crows, greater racket-tailed drongos and occasionally, the rare Storm's storks.

Significant Value of Site:
- Biodiversity
- Soil/Carbon
- Socio-economic

Maludam National Park is a peat-forming wetland. The soil is categorized as Anderson Series with more than 250 cm of organic soil materials and low content of ash. The peat accumulation is greater towards the center of the peat swamp. Forest type gradually changed with the peat depth. Mixed Peat Swamp Forest is located on the shallow peat while on the deeper peat layer are the Alan Peat Swamp Forest and low canopy forest.


There are at least 218 species of flora from various groups of plants are recorded. The most common families recorded were Dipterocarpaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fagaceae, Lauraceae, Ebenaceae, Sapindaceae, Dilleniaceae, Sapotaceae, Myristiceae and Gonystylaceae.

There are 61 species of mammals recorded in Maludam which include 15 species of bats. Five mammals recorded from Maludam NP are diurnal primates including the highly endangered Red Banded langur and endangered Proboscis monkey. The Maludam NP is critical for protecting the only viable population of the red banded langur (Presbytis melalophos cruciger) remaining in the world today. This species is one of the world's most beautiful monkeys. It occurs only in Borneo, and is restricted entirely to the peat swamp forests of the Sri Aman and Sarikei Divisions of Sarawak.

As for avifauna, there are 201 species and 24 families of birds including 21 species of paleartic migrant birds and 5 species of hornbills were recorded. A new record of Masked Finfoot (Heliopais personata) was sighted for the first time in Borneo Island. Seventeen species of the total bird recorded are under the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.

A total of 17 species of herpetofauna comprising 11 species of reptiles including a saltwater crocodile and six species of amphibians were recorded from the Maludam area.

The recorded freshwater fish fauna comprises 28 species representing 17 genera and 11 families. The most common family recorded from the area was the Cyprinidae.

The area is a perfect location as an alternative model for the state in researches on wildlife, swamps, hydrology, eco-tourism and local research. As a new destination for ecotourism, Maludam National Park is able to offer nature, culture and adventure-oriented tour package.
Designated use (status/legal classification):
- National Park/State Park

Major Issues: Due to uncontrolled logging practices in the last few decades, the Forestry Department of Sarawak in 2003 estimates that only 18,920.45ha or 1.47%, of peat swamp forests remains in primary state. This palm oil concession granted by the government for oil palm exploitation puts even more pressure on the ecosystem and renders their promise for 'green' palm oil untruthful.
Site Jurisdiction & Administration: Forest Department Sarawak
Sarawak Forestry Corporation
Peatland Type: Lowland
Management activities: a) Past
The area was gazetted in 2000 as a national park

b) Current

c) Potential

Facilities & Activities Available on Site:
Institution Responsible for the Site:
Name of Organization: Sarawak Forestry Corporation
Postal Address: Sarawak Forestry Corporation
Lot 218, KCLD,
Jalan Tapang, Kota Sentosa,
93250 Kuching, Sarawak, Malaysia.
Phone: +6082 610088
Fax: +6082 610099
Nominated by:
Name: Khairul Azwan Mohamad
Organization: GEC