Site Nomination for Peat Site Profiles in Southeast Asia
Protected Area|High Conservation Value Forest (HCVF)
Name of Site: Phru To Daeng Swamp Forest
Country: Thailand
GPS Point: Latitude: 6° 03’ – 21’ N Longitude: 101° 50’ - 102° 03’ E
Location & Access: Takbai district, Narathiwat province.
The park is best reached by motorbike taxi from Sungai Kolok town. It is around 6km from town and a trip out there and back should cost 120B-150B including waiting time.
Total Area: 34636.00 hectare(s)
Background of Site: The forest is located 0-14 meters above mean sea level: The water level in the swamp forest reaches its peak during the period when the climate is under the influence of the northeastern monsoon. The climate of Phru To Daeng, in general, is warmer and wetter than other type of forests nearby.

Phru To Daeng is the largest remaining freshwater swamp forest in Thailand. The forestland is approximately 8 km in width and roughly 28 km in length. Phru To Daeng lies parallel to the eastern coastline of the southern region and is located about 7 km inland. The area consist of approximately 96.84 square kms (60,525 rai) of original swamp forest, 146 square km (91,250 rai) of the areas where the swamp forests have been degraded and have changed into either Melaleuca forests or shrub forests, and roughly 98 square km (61,250 rai) of swamp grasslands. The east of the forest area is composed of generally lower plains along the coastline, while the west is mountainous areas with a highest peak of 1,182 meters. The northern part of the swamp forest discharges into Bang Nara River and the southern part discharges into Bang Nara River and the southern part discharges into Sungaikolok River.

Phru To Daeng has rather complex plant communities, with densely packed trees, shrubs and bryophytes. Degraded areas are, however, dominated by other distinct plant communities such as Melaleuca forest. The original swamp forests are the least disturbed areas. The upper canopy of these forests comprises Neesia malayana, Dacryodes incurvata and Podocarpus motley, while Myristica elliptica, Goniothalamus giganteus, Polyalthia lateriflora, and Crudia caudate made up the middle stratum. The typical species of the lower stratum are Calamus caesius and other rattan species, Cyrtostachys renda, Nenga pumila, Caryota mitis and Archidendron clypearia. The heavily encroached or burned swamp forests are often densely covered with Melaleuca spp. and are difficult to restore to their original condition

Significant Value of Site:
- Biodiversity
Designated use (status/legal classification):

Declared as a wildlife sanctuary on September 12, 1991. Wetland of international importance.
Major Issues: The forest is currently under threat from forest fire, land encroachment and illegal collection of rare plants and animals
Site Jurisdiction & Administration: Department of National Parks, Wildlife and Plant Conservation
Peatland Type: Lowland
Management activities: a) Past
Since 1981, a number of public agencies have been implementing many development projects in Phru To Daeng. These projects have had severe impacts on the forest, including the loss of two-thirds of the forest area from an increase in soil acidity, clearing and bush burning. Some parts of the forest were cleared for rice cultivation. These areas had, however, been able to be cultivated for only 1-2 years due to high acidity and were replaced by Melaleuca forests. The highest level of destruction in the forest occurred in 1983.
Phru To Daeng was declared a wildlife sanctuary by section 160 of the 108th issue of the Royal Decree, on September 12, 1991.

b) Current
Some parts of the swamp forest are reserved forests, while the remaining are generally public lands. The surrounding areas are privately owned. These areas are situated at higher elevations than the forests and are thus densely populated. There are roads encircling the swamp forest.

c) Potential

Facilities & Activities Available on Site: The centre is part of the Royal initiative/studies on peat swamp forest and is overseen by the Department of National Parks, Wildlife and Plant Conservation which conducts research/studies in the peat swamp forest of Phru Toe Daeng in Southern Thailand in Narathiwat province.
Institution Responsible for the Site:
Name of Organization: Department of National Parks, Wildlife and Plant Conseration
Postal Address: Department of National Parks, Wildlife and Plant Conservation 61 Phaholyothin Road, Chatuchak, Bangkok 10900
Phone: +662-561-0777
Fax: +662-561-0777
Nominated by:
Name: Ms. Tippawan Sethapun
Organization: Department of National Park, Wildlife and Plant Conservation