Site Nomination for Peat Site Profiles in Southeast Asia
Protected Area
Name of Site: Danau Sentarum National Park
Country: Indonesia
GPS Point: Latitude: 0°39' - 1°00' N Longitude: 111°56' - 112°25' E
Location & Access: Pontianak-Sintang-Semitau can be reached by vehicle in approximately 11 hours or Sintang-Semitau by longboat (bandong) can be reached in approximately seven hours. From Semitau to site by motor boat to Lanjak. Pontianak-Putussibau by airplane in two hours and from Putussibau to Nanga Suhaid by longboat in approximately seven hours.
Total Area: 129700.00 hectare(s)
Background of Site: Pontianak-Sintang-Semitau can be reached by vehicle in approximately 11 hours or Sintang-Semitau by longboat (bandong) can be reached in approximately seven hours. From Semitau to site by motor boat to Lanjak. Pontianak-Putussibau by airplane in two hours and from Putussibau to Nanga Suhaid by longboat in approximately seven hours.

37 - 40 m asl.

Danau Sentarum National Park lies in the upper Kapuas River basin, some 700 kilometres upstream from the delta. The upper Kapuas River basin is surrounded by low mountain ranges and extends over about 6,500 square kilometres. Much of this basin is a vast floodplain, consisting of seasonal lakes (max. water depth 7-8 metres), freshwater swamp forest and peat swamp forest.

Climatic conditions:        Temperature 26° - 30° C

Rainfall 1,500- 3,900 mm/year

Soil:        The geology of Danau Sentarum consists largely of recent deposits with some arkosic sandstone outcroppings. Recent deposits consist of illite and kaolin clays in the lake basin, with pockets of shallow to moderately deep topogenic peat occurring locally. Soils on slopes consist mainly of highly weathered and nutrient poor loams and sands, while those on the flat ridge tops consist of fine to moderately fine sands and loamy sands. In general, soils throughout the area have a low to very low nutrient status and are infe rtile. The flat topography is relieved by several isolated hills in the Park, and hill ranges to the west, northeast, and east.

Ecology:        Danau Sentarum National Park represents lake wetland, freshwater swamp forest, and tropical rain forest ecosystems. Three main swamp forest types are recognized on the basis of structure: dwarf swamp forest, stunted swamp forest, and tall swamp forest.

Physical Vegetation:        Nearly 50% of Lake Sentarum National Park is a peat swamp forest. Ramin (Gonystylus bancanus), rengas (melanorrhoea wallichii), and bintangur (Calophyllum spp.) are the dominant species in peat swamp ecosystem in Lake Sentarum National Park. The hilly forest area is dominated by Dipterocarpaceae family, such as kapur (Dryobalanops aromatica) and resak (Vatica spp.).

Others:        The drainage system from this freshwater lake and flooded forest makes Lake Sentarum quite distinct from other lakes. Its reddish-black water is a result of the tannin from the surrounding peat swamp forest. In the rainy season, the depth of the lake may reach 6-8 metres, flooding the surrounding areas and forest. During the dry season, when the level of the Kapuas river gradually drops, water from Lake Sentarum flows into Kapuas to restore the water deficit and keep the water level of the river relatively stable. Eventually, when the dry season reaches its climax, Lake Sentarum and the surrounding areas become a vast stretch of dry land, the fish from the lake inhabiting small, scattered ponds.

Because of high precipitation levels, most of the low-lying areas in the basin--including Danau Sentarum--are flooded in the wetter months. Water levels of the lakes and streams may rise and fall up to 12 meters during an average year. During about nine months of the year the lake system is flooded, with an average maximum depth of 6.5 meters, though levels may fluctuate substantially. During the remainder of the year (usually late June-early September) waters usually retreat to the deepest channels and the lakes dry out entirely in two out of three years.

Significant Value of Site:
- Biodiversity
- Cultural & Historical Value
- Socio-economic

Like other areas of West Kalimantan, this Park has some peculiar and endemic species of plant, including tengkawang (Shorea beccariana). Lowland forest plants like jelutung (Dyera costulata), ramin (Gonystylus bancanus), meranti (Shorea spp.), keruing (Dipterocarpus spp.), and kayu ulin (Eusideroxylon zwageri) can also be found.

Danau Sentarum National Park has a rich fish fauna with around 240 recorded species, including the Asian Arowana and Clown Loach Botia. There have been 237 bird species recorded including the Storm's Stork and Great Argus. Of the 143 mammal species 23 are endemic to Borneo including the Proboscis Monkey. There is a relatively large population of the endangered Orangutans present in the park. The 26 reptile species include the False Gavial and Estuarine Crocodile.

Danau Sentarum National Park has a variety of fish speciesit is estimated that there are about 120 species. Among them are the Asian bony tongue (Scleropages formosus), belida (Notopterus chitala), toman (Channa micropeltes), betutu (Oxyeleotris marmorata), jelawat (Leptobarbus hoeveni), ketutung (Balantiocheilos melanopterus), and the beautiful clown loach (Botia macracanthus).

Other animals like proboscis monkey (Nasalis larvatus), orangutan (Pongo satyrus), estuarine crocodile (Crocodylus porosus), false gavial (Tomistoma schlegelii), siamese crocodile (Crocodylus siamensis), clouded leopard (Neofelis nebulosa), great argus (Argusianus argus grayi), and wooly-necked stork (Ciconia episcopus stormi) also inhabit the Park.

Bordered by hills and highlands that surround it, Lake Sentarum is a water catchment area and water regulator for Kapuas River Basin.


Cultural &Historical Value:
An area of 800 km² was first gazetted as Wildlife Reserve in 1982, which in 1994 was extended to 1,320 km² (890 km² is swamp forest area and 430 km² is dry-land) when it became a Ramsar site. In 1999 it was declared a National Park, however a National Park Authority was only established in 2006

Danau Sentarum National Park has been declared an International Wetland Site under the Ramsar Convention in 1992.

The lakes support a large traditional fishing industry. The western part of the upper Kapuas floodplain is inhabited by almost 20,000 people, 88% of which are Malay fishermen. About 3,000 people live in about 20 village enclaves within the Park.

The local people around Danau Sentarum National Park belong to the Dayak tribes like the Iban, Sebaruk, Sontas, Punan and they still live in a very traditional way. The characteristic longhouses (betang) vary in size according to the number of people occupying them. This could be between five and 30 families. A typical longhouse occupied by fifteen to thirty families would have an average length of 186 metres and a width of 6 metres. The local way of life is fascinating for tourists; the atmosphere of the betang is harmonious, simple, and friendly, and visitors will usually be treated to a traditional Dayak dance.

Designated use (status/legal classification):
- National Park/State Park|International recognition (e.g RAMSAR| Man & Biosphere Reserve (MBR) etc.)

Major Issues: Illegal logging
Forest fire
Oil palm expansion
Site Jurisdiction & Administration: Decree of Minister of Forestry No.34/Kpts-II/99, February 4, 1999
Peatland Type: Lowland
Management activities: a) Past
Most of forest block has been selectively commerially logged during the 1990s. The forest zone as conversion forest (HPK) and non-state forest land/other land uses (APL

b) Current

c) Potential
Tourism destination:

Bukit Lanjak and Nanga Kenelang: views over the lake, boating on the lake, and watching birds.

Bukit Tekenang: research facilities, including a laboratory.

Best time of year to visit: June to September

Facilities & Activities Available on Site: Available fasilities are lodging, dock, trail, home stay, etc.
Institution Responsible for the Site:
Name of Organization: Ministry of Forestry Balai Taman Nasional Danau Sentarum
Postal Address: Ministry of Forestry
Balai Taman Nasional Danau Sentarum
Office address: Jl. Abdurahman Saleh 33
Pontianak, West Kalimantan, Indonesia

Phone: +62-561-734613
Fax: 0
Nominated by:
Name: Lailan Syaufina
Organization: Bogor Agricultural University (IPB)