|Site Nomination for Peat Site Profiles in Southeast Asia|
|Name of Site:||Tanjung Puting National Park (TNRAW)|
|GPS Point:||Latitude: 2°33’ - 3°32’ S Longitude: 111°42’ - 112°14’ E|
|Location & Access:||
Administratively, Tanjung Puting National Park is located in two districts, i.e. Kotawaringin Timur and Kotawaringin Barat, in the Province of Central Kalimantan.
How to reach the Park: Jakarta-Semarang- Pangkalan Bun (by plane) or by ship from Semarang-Pangkalan Bun. Pangkalan Bun - Kumai in 20 minutes (8 km) over land. Then Kumai - Tanjung Harapan by klotok in 1.5-2 hours, or Kumai - Natai Lengkuas in 4 - 5 hours. Kumai - Tanjung Harapan by speed boat in 0.5 - 1 hours, Kumai - Camp Leakey in 1.5 - 2 hours, and Kumai - Natai Lengkuas in 1,5 - 2 hours
|Total Area:||300040.00 hectare(s)|
|Background of Site:||
This Park was the first place in Indonesia to become a rehabilitation centre for orangutans. There are now three orangutan rehabilitation locations, Tanjung Harapan, Pondok Tanggui, and Camp Leakey
Altitude: 0 - 100 m asl.
Physical Like other coastal area which of Kalimantan, the park is relatively flat undulating with elevations ranging from 0 to 11 meters above mean sea level. Some low undulating ridges which run generally southwards can be found in the northern part of the Park (in the north of the Sekonyer Simpang Kanan river). Scattered dry land humps occur in the central and southern parts of the Park area and are isolated by very large swampy areas many of which are almost devoid of vegetation.
Climatic conditions: Temperature 22° - 33°C
Rainfall 2,400 mm/year
The national park is of relatively young geological age and the flat swampy area extending inland for some 5 to 20 kilometers from the coast may be only some hundreds to thousands of years ols only. The majority of the deposits are alluvial and of recent origin. The northern part of the park which rises a few meters above sea level is probably part of the tertiary sandstone deposition. The soils are in general poor, heavily leached and poorly developed. All the soils are very acid and have a pH ranging from 3.8 to 5.0. All the soils, like so many in Kalimantan, are very infertile and do not generally support more than temporary agricultural practices.
Ecology: Nearly all primary peat swamp forests in Central Kalimantan and its ecosystem are located in TNTP area. Forest area in this national park has a number of ecosystem types, i.e.lowland tropical forest ecosystem, dry soil forest ecosystem (heath forest), freshwater swamp forest ecosystem, peat swamp forest ecosystem, mangrove foerest ecosystem, coastal forest ecosystem, and secondary forest ecosystem.
Physical Vegetation: Tanjung Puting National Park has several ecosystem types: lowland tropical rain forest, dryland forest, freshwater swamp forest, mangrove forest, coastal forest, and secondary forest.
Others: UNESCO has declared Tanjung Puting National Park as a Biosphere Reserve, and it is also a Sister Park to Taman Negara Malaysia under a cooperation agreement between Indonesia and Malaysia.
Significant Value of Site:
- Cultural & Historical Value
The Park is dominated by lowland forest plants like jelutung (Dyera costulata), ramin (Gonystylus bancanus), meranti (Shorea sp.), keruing (Dipterocarpus sp.), and rattans.
Endangered and protected species of animal inhabiting the Park include the orangutan (Pongo satyrus), proboscis monkey (Nasalis larvatus), maroon leaf monkey (Presbytis rubicunda rubida), sun bear (Helarctos malayanus euryspilus), lesser Malay mouse deer (Tragulus javanicus klossii), clouded leopard (Neofelis nebulosa), and leopard cat (Prionailurus bengalensis borneoensis).
The orangutan of Kalimantan has dark reddish fur and no tail. As they get older, the adult malescheeks flesh out, resembling cushions. The older they get, the bigger these cheek flanges grow, giving them a fierce look.
The flooded river networks of Tanjung Puting National Park and Lamandau Reserve are key components of forest ecology. Without them, forests and fruit would be distributed differently, and so would orangutans and other species dependent on these unique ecosystem.
A large proportion of the areas at Tanjung Puting and Lamandau are low-lying and include seasonally or permanently wet areas including coastal wetlands, swamps, rivers and seasonal lakes
Peat ; mineral soil
Cultural & Historical Value:
The Sekonyer river is famous for it’s natural beauty and wildlife. As you cruise down through the jungle, you’ll be transported to another world, a world far beyond the hustle and bustle of city life.
Relax on board your boat and take in the sights of monkeys jumping from tree to tree. The park is home to around eight species of monkeys including the very distinctive proboscis monkey,
Food gardens (rubber trees), agroforestry, fishing
Designated use (status/legal classification):
- National Park/State Park|International recognition (e.g RAMSAR| Man & Biosphere Reserve (MBR) etc.)
|Major Issues:||The park was heavily damaged by fires in 1997 and 1998, and today remains threatened by illegal logging, illegal mining, and forest clearing for agricultural uses (oil palm)|
|Site Jurisdiction & Administration:||Decree of Minister of Forestry Number 587/ Kpts-II/1996 with a total area of 415,040 hectares|
The park was set aside in the 1930s by the Dutch colonial government for the protection of the orangutans and proboscis monkey, and was designated as a UNESCO Biosphere Reserve in 1977 and a national park in 1982
Tanjung Harapan: this is the first station in the orangutan rehabilitation process. Situated in the midst of secondary forest and swamp forest, it has a guesthouse, an information centre, and trails.
Pondok Tanggui: orangutans that have passed the semi-wild phase are moved to Pondok Tanggui. There, they are closely monitored from a distance, and human contact is avoided.
Camp Leakey: founded in 1971 in the middle of primary forest, this is the location for semi-wild and wild orangutans, and for younger orangutans from birth until three years of age.
Natai Lengkuas: bekantan research station, and watching other animals along the river.
Buluh River and Danau Burung (Bird Lake): watching birds, in particular migrant species.
Among the cultural attractions outside the Park is a traditional rowing contest held in Pangkalan Bun in May.
Best time of year to visit: June to September.
|Facilities & Activities Available on Site:||
The majority of visitors to Tanjung Puting travel via boat and stay on board during their time in the park.
There are also limited options to stay in simple hotels and homestays.
|Institution Responsible for the Site:||